## Tuesday, December 17, 2013

### Levenberg Marquardt & Constraints by Domain Transformation

The Fortran minpack library has a good Levenberg-Marquardt minimizer, so good, that it has been ported to many programming languages. Unfortunately it does not support contraints, even simple bounds.

One way to achieve this is to transform the domain via a bijective function. For example, $$a+\frac{b-a}{1+e^{-\alpha t}}$$ will transform $$]-\infty, +\infty[$$ to ]a,b[. Then how should one choose $$\alpha$$?

A large $$\alpha$$ will make tiny changes in $$t$$ appear large. A simple rule is to ensure that $$t$$ does not create large changes in the original range ]a,b[, for example we can make $$\alpha t \leq 1$$, that is $$\alpha t= \frac{t-a}{b-a}$$.

In practice, for example in the calibration of the Double-Heston model on real data, a naive $$\alpha=1$$ will converge to a RMSE of 0.79%, while our choice will converge to a RMSE of 0.50%. Both will however converge to the same solution if the initial guess is close enough to the real solution. Without any transform, the RMSE is also 0.50%. The difference in error might not seem large but this results in vastly different calibrated parameters. Introducing the transform can significantly change the calibration result, if not done carefully.

Another simpler way would be to just impose a cap/floor on the inputs, thus ensuring that nothing is evaluated where it does not make sense. In practice, it however will not always converge as well as the unconstrained problem: the gradient is not defined at the boundary. On the same data, the Schobel-Zhu, unconstrained converges with RMSE 1.08% while the transform converges to 1.22% and the cap/floor to 1.26%. The Schobel-Zhu example is more surprising since the initial guess, as well as the results are not so far:

 Initial volatility (v0) 18.1961 Long run volatility (theta) 1 Speed of mean reversion (kappa) 101.229 Vol of vol (sigma) 35.2222 Correlation (rho) -73.7995 ERROR MEASURE 1.06149

 Initial volatility (v0) 17.1296 Long run volatility (theta) 1 Speed of mean reversion (kappa) 67.9818 Vol of vol (sigma) 30.8491 Correlation (rho) -74.6146 ERROR MEASURE 1.22564

The initial guess is kappa=61% theta=11% sigma=26% v0=18% rho=-70%. Only the kappa is different in the two results, and the range on the kappa is (0,2000) (it is expressed in %), much larger than the result. In reality, theta is the issue (in (0,1000)). Forbidding a negative theta has an impact on how kappa is picked. The only way to be closer

Finally, a third way is to rely on a simple penalty: returning an arbitrary large number away from the boundary. In our examples this was no better than the transform or the cap/floor.

Trying out the various ways, it seemed that allowing meaningless parameters, as long as they work mathematically produced the best results with Levenberg-Marquardt, particularly, allowing for a negative theta in Schobel-Zhu made a difference.

### Levenberg Marquardt & Constraints by Domain Transformation

The Fortran minpack library has a good Levenberg-Marquardt minimizer, so good, that it has been ported to many programming languages. Unfortunately it does not support contraints, even simple bounds.

One way to achieve this is to transform the domain via a bijective function. For example, $$a+\frac{b-a}{1+e^{-\alpha t}}$$ will transform $$]-\infty, +\infty[$$ to ]a,b[. Then how should one choose $$\alpha$$?

A large $$\alpha$$ will make tiny changes in $$t$$ appear large. A simple rule is to ensure that $$t$$ does not create large changes in the original range ]a,b[, for example we can make $$\alpha t \leq 1$$, that is $$\alpha t= \frac{t-a}{b-a}$$.

In practice, for example in the calibration of the Double-Heston model on real data, a naive $$\alpha=1$$ will converge to a RMSE of 0.79%, while our choice will converge to a RMSE of 0.50%. Both will however converge to the same solution if the initial guess is close enough to the real solution. Without any transform, the RMSE is also 0.50%. The difference in error might not seem large but this results in vastly different calibrated parameters. Introducing the transform can significantly change the calibration result, if not done carefully.

Another simpler way would be to just impose a cap/floor on the inputs, thus ensuring that nothing is evaluated where it does not make sense. In practice, it however will not always converge as well as the unconstrained problem: the gradient is not defined at the boundary. On the same data, the Schobel-Zhu, unconstrained converges with RMSE 1.08% while the transform converges to 1.22% and the cap/floor to 1.26%. The Schobel-Zhu example is more surprising since the initial guess, as well as the results are not so far:

 Initial volatility (v0) 18.1961 Long run volatility (theta) 1 Speed of mean reversion (kappa) 101.229 Vol of vol (sigma) 35.2222 Correlation (rho) -73.7995 ERROR MEASURE 1.06149

 Initial volatility (v0) 17.1296 Long run volatility (theta) 1 Speed of mean reversion (kappa) 67.9818 Vol of vol (sigma) 30.8491 Correlation (rho) -74.6146 ERROR MEASURE 1.22564

The initial guess is kappa=61% theta=11% sigma=26% v0=18% rho=-70%. Only the kappa is different in the two results, and the range on the kappa is (0,2000) (it is expressed in %), much larger than the result. In reality, theta is the issue (in (0,1000)). Forbidding a negative theta has an impact on how kappa is picked. The only way to be closer

Finally, a third way is to rely on a simple penalty: returning an arbitrary large number away from the boundary. In our examples this was no better than the transform or the cap/floor.

Trying out the various ways, it seemed that allowing meaningless parameters, as long as they work mathematically produced the best results with Levenberg-Marquardt, particularly, allowing for a negative theta in Schobel-Zhu made a difference.

## Saturday, December 14, 2013

### Arbitrage Free SABR - Another View on Hagan Approach

Several months ago, I took a look at two interesting recent ways to price under SABR with no arbitrage:
• One way is due to Andreasen and Huge, where they find an equivalent local volatility expansion, and then use a one-step finite difference technique to price.
• The other way is due to Hagan himself, where he numerically solves an approximate PDE in the probability density, and then price with options by integrating on this density.
It turns out that the two ways are much closer than I first thought. Hagan PDE in the probability density is actually just the Fokker-Planck (forward) equation.
The $$\alpha D(F)$$ is just the equivalent local volatility. Andreasen and Huge use nearly the same local volatility formula but without the exponential part (that is often negligible except for long maturities), directly in Dupire forward PDE:
A common derivation (for example in Gatheral book) of the Dupire forward PDE is to actually use the Fokker-Planck equation in the probability density integral formula. Out of curiosity, I tried to price direcly with Dupire forward PDE and the Hagan local volatility formula, using just linear boundary conditions. Here are the results on Hagan own example:

The Local Vol direct approach overlaps the Density approach nearly exactly, except at the high strike boundary, when it comes to probability density measure or to implied volatility smile. On Andreasen and Huge data, it gives the following:

One can see that the one step method approximation gives the overall same shape of smile, but shifted, while the PDE, in local vol or density matches the Hagan formula at the money.

Hagan managed to derive a slightly more precise local volatility by going through the probability density route, and his paper formalizes his model in a clearer way: the probability density accumulates at the boundaries. But in practice, this formalism does not seem to matter. The forward Dupire way is more direct and slightly faster. This later way also allows to use alternative boundaries, like Andreasen-Huge did.

Update March 2014 - I have now a paper around this "Finite Difference Techniques for Arbitrage Free SABR"

### Arbitrage Free SABR - Another View on Hagan Approach

Several months ago, I took a look at two interesting recent ways to price under SABR with no arbitrage:
• One way is due to Andreasen and Huge, where they find an equivalent local volatility expansion, and then use a one-step finite difference technique to price.
• The other way is due to Hagan himself, where he numerically solves an approximate PDE in the probability density, and then price with options by integrating on this density.
It turns out that the two ways are much closer than I first thought. Hagan PDE in the probability density is actually just the Fokker-Planck (forward) equation.
The $$\alpha D(F)$$ is just the equivalent local volatility. Andreasen and Huge use nearly the same local volatility formula but without the exponential part (that is often negligible except for long maturities), directly in Dupire forward PDE:
A common derivation (for example in Gatheral book) of the Dupire forward PDE is to actually use the Fokker-Planck equation in the probability density integral formula. Out of curiosity, I tried to price direcly with Dupire forward PDE and the Hagan local volatility formula, using just linear boundary conditions. Here are the results on Hagan own example:

The Local Vol direct approach overlaps the Density approach nearly exactly, except at the high strike boundary, when it comes to probability density measure or to implied volatility smile. On Andreasen and Huge data, it gives the following:

One can see that the one step method approximation gives the overall same shape of smile, but shifted, while the PDE, in local vol or density matches the Hagan formula at the money.

Hagan managed to derive a slightly more precise local volatility by going through the probability density route, and his paper formalizes his model in a clearer way: the probability density accumulates at the boundaries. But in practice, this formalism does not seem to matter. The forward Dupire way is more direct and slightly faster. This later way also allows to use alternative boundaries, like Andreasen-Huge did.

Update March 2014 - I have now a paper around this "Finite Difference Techniques for Arbitrage Free SABR"

## Thursday, November 21, 2013

### American Option on Forward/Futures

Prices of a Future contract and a Forward contract are the same under the Black-Scholes assumptions (deterministic rates) but the price of options on Futures or options on Forwards might still differ. I did not find this obvious at first.

For example, when the underlying contract expiration date (Futures, Forward) is different from the option expiration date. For a Future Option, the Black-76 formula can be used, the discounting is done from the option expiry date, because one receives the cash on expiration due to the margin account. For a Forward Option, the discounting need to be done from the Forward contract expiry date.

European options prices will be the same when the underlying contract expiration date is the same as the option expiration date. However, this is not true for American options: the immediate exercise will need to be discounted to the Forward expiration date for a Forward underlying, not for a Future.

### American Option on Forward/Futures

Prices of a Future contract and a Forward contract are the same under the Black-Scholes assumptions (deterministic rates) but the price of options on Futures or options on Forwards might still differ. I did not find this obvious at first.

For example, when the underlying contract expiration date (Futures, Forward) is different from the option expiration date. For a Future Option, the Black-76 formula can be used, the discounting is done from the option expiry date, because one receives the cash on expiration due to the margin account. For a Forward Option, the discounting need to be done from the Forward contract expiry date.

European options prices will be the same when the underlying contract expiration date is the same as the option expiration date. However, this is not true for American options: the immediate exercise will need to be discounted to the Forward expiration date for a Forward underlying, not for a Future.

## Wednesday, November 20, 2013

### Spikes in Heston/Schobel-Zhu Local Volatility

Using precise vanilla option pricing engine for Heston or Schobel-Zhu, like the Cos method with enough points and a large enough truncation can still lead to spikes in the Dupire local volatility (using the variance based formula). Local Volatility Implied Volatility

The large spikes in the local volatility 3d surface are due to constant extrapolation, but there are spikes even way before the extrapolation takes place at longer maturities. Even if the Cos method is precise, it seems to be not enough, especially for large strikes so that the second derivative over the strike combined with the first derivative over time can strongly oscillate.

After wondering about possible solutions (using a spline on the implied volatilities), the root of the error was much simpler: I used a too small difference to compute the numerical derivatives (1E-6). Moving to 1E-4 was enough to restore a smooth local volatility surface.

### Spikes in Heston/Schobel-Zhu Local Volatility

Using precise vanilla option pricing engine for Heston or Schobel-Zhu, like the Cos method with enough points and a large enough truncation can still lead to spikes in the Dupire local volatility (using the variance based formula). Local Volatility Implied Volatility

The large spikes in the local volatility 3d surface are due to constant extrapolation, but there are spikes even way before the extrapolation takes place at longer maturities. Even if the Cos method is precise, it seems to be not enough, especially for large strikes so that the second derivative over the strike combined with the first derivative over time can strongly oscillate.

After wondering about possible solutions (using a spline on the implied volatilities), the root of the error was much simpler: I used a too small difference to compute the numerical derivatives (1E-6). Moving to 1E-4 was enough to restore a smooth local volatility surface.

## Wednesday, October 16, 2013

### Local Stochastic Volatility with Monte-Carlo

I always imagined local stochastic volatility to be complicated, and thought it would be very slow to calibrate.

After reading a bit about it, I noticed that the calibration phase could just consist in calibrating independently a Dupire local volatility model and a stochastic volatility model the usual way.

One can then choose to compute on the fly the local volatility component (not equal the Dupire one, but including the stochastic adjustment) in the Monte-Carlo simulation to price a product.

There are two relatively simple algorithms that are remarkably similar, one by Guyon and Henry-Labordère in "The Smile Calibration Problem Solved":

And one from Van der Stoep, Grzelak & Oosterlee "The Heston Stochastic-Local Volatility Model: Efficient Monte Carlo Simulation":

In the particle method, the delta function is a regularizing kernel approximating the Dirac function. If we use the notation of the second paper, we have a = psi.

The methods are extremely similar, the evaluation of the expectation is slightly different, but even that is not very different. The disadvantage is that all paths are needed at each time step. As a payoff is evaluated over one full path, this is quite memory intensive.

### Local Stochastic Volatility with Monte-Carlo

I always imagined local stochastic volatility to be complicated, and thought it would be very slow to calibrate.

After reading a bit about it, I noticed that the calibration phase could just consist in calibrating independently a Dupire local volatility model and a stochastic volatility model the usual way.

One can then choose to compute on the fly the local volatility component (not equal the Dupire one, but including the stochastic adjustment) in the Monte-Carlo simulation to price a product.

There are two relatively simple algorithms that are remarkably similar, one by Guyon and Henry-Labordère in "The Smile Calibration Problem Solved":

And one from Van der Stoep, Grzelak & Oosterlee "The Heston Stochastic-Local Volatility Model: Efficient Monte Carlo Simulation":

In the particle method, the delta function is a regularizing kernel approximating the Dirac function. If we use the notation of the second paper, we have a = psi.

The methods are extremely similar, the evaluation of the expectation is slightly different, but even that is not very different. The disadvantage is that all paths are needed at each time step. As a payoff is evaluated over one full path, this is quite memory intensive.

## Monday, October 07, 2013

### Heston, Schobel-Zhu, Bates, Double-Heston Fit

I did some experiments fitting Heston, Schobel-Zhu, Bates and Double-Heston to a real world equity index implied volatility surface. I used a global optimizer (differential evolution).

To my surprise, the Heston fit is quite good: the implied volatility error is less than 0.42% on average. Schobel-Zhu fit is also good (0.47% RMSE), but a bit worse than Heston. Bates improves quite a bit on Heston although it has 3 more parameters, we can see the fit is better for short maturities (0.33% RMSE). Double-Heston has the best fit overall but it is not that much better than simple Heston while it has twice the number of parameters, that is 10 (0.24 RMSE). Going beyond, for example Triple-Heston, does not improve anything, and the optimization becomes very challenging. With Double-Heston, I already noticed that kappa is very low (and theta high) for one of the processes, and kappa is very high (and theta low) for the other process: so much that I had to add a penalty to enforce constraints in my local optimizer. The best fit is at the boundary for kappa and theta. So double Heston already feels over-parameterized. Heston volatility error Schobel-Zhu volatility error Bates volatility error Double Heston volatility error

Another advantage of Heston is that one can find tricks to find a good initial guess for a local optimizer.

Update October 7: My initial fit relied only on differential evolution and was not the most stable as a result. Adding Levenberg-Marquardt at the end stabilizes the fit, and improves the fit a lot, especially for Bates and Double Heston. I updated the graphs and conclusions accordingly. Bates fit is not so bad at all.

### Heston, Schobel-Zhu, Bates, Double-Heston Fit

I did some experiments fitting Heston, Schobel-Zhu, Bates and Double-Heston to a real world equity index implied volatility surface. I used a global optimizer (differential evolution).

To my surprise, the Heston fit is quite good: the implied volatility error is less than 0.42% on average. Schobel-Zhu fit is also good (0.47% RMSE), but a bit worse than Heston. Bates improves quite a bit on Heston although it has 3 more parameters, we can see the fit is better for short maturities (0.33% RMSE). Double-Heston has the best fit overall but it is not that much better than simple Heston while it has twice the number of parameters, that is 10 (0.24 RMSE). Going beyond, for example Triple-Heston, does not improve anything, and the optimization becomes very challenging. With Double-Heston, I already noticed that kappa is very low (and theta high) for one of the processes, and kappa is very high (and theta low) for the other process: so much that I had to add a penalty to enforce constraints in my local optimizer. The best fit is at the boundary for kappa and theta. So double Heston already feels over-parameterized. Heston volatility error Schobel-Zhu volatility error Bates volatility error Double Heston volatility error

Another advantage of Heston is that one can find tricks to find a good initial guess for a local optimizer.

Update October 7: My initial fit relied only on differential evolution and was not the most stable as a result. Adding Levenberg-Marquardt at the end stabilizes the fit, and improves the fit a lot, especially for Bates and Double Heston. I updated the graphs and conclusions accordingly. Bates fit is not so bad at all.

## Thursday, October 03, 2013

### Second Cumulant of Heston

I recently stumbled upon an error in the various papers related to the Heston Cos method regarding the second cumulant. It is used to define the boundaries of the Cos method.

Letting phi be Heston characteristic function, the cumulant generating function is:
$$g(u) = \log(\phi(-iu))$$

And the second cumulant is defined a:
$$c_2 = g''(0)$$

Compared to a numerical implementation, the c_2 from the paper is really off in many use cases.

This is where Maxima comes useful, even if I had to simplify the results by hand. It leads to the following analytical formula:
$$c_2 = \frac{v_0}{4\kappa^3}\{ 4 \kappa^2 \left(1+(\rho\sigma t -1)e^{-\kappa t}\right) + \kappa \left(4\rho\sigma(e^{-\kappa t}-1)-2\sigma^2 t e^{-\kappa t}\right)+\sigma^2(1-e^{-2\kappa t}) \}\\ + \frac{\theta}{8\kappa^3} \{ 8 \kappa^3 t - 8 \kappa^2 \left(1+ \rho\sigma t + (\rho\sigma t-1)e^{-\kappa t}\right) + 2\kappa \left( (1+2e^{-\kappa t})\sigma^2 t+8(1-e^{-\kappa t})\rho\sigma \right) \\ + \sigma^2(e^{-2\kappa t} + 4e^{-\kappa t}-5) \}$$

In contrast, the paper formula was:

I saw this while trying to calibrate Heston on a bumped surface: the results were very different with the Cos method than with the other methods. The short maturities were mispriced, except if one pushed the truncation level L to 24 (instead of the usual 12), and as a result one would also need to significantly raise the number of points used in the Cos method. With the corrected formula, it works well with L=12.

Here is an example of failure on a call option of strike, spot 1.0 and maturity 1.0 and not-so-realistic Heston parameters $$\kappa=0.1, \theta=1.12, \sigma=1.0, v_0=0.2, \rho=-0.377836$$ using 200 points:

New formula: 0.1640581405
Paper formula: 0.1743425406
N=30 with 10000 points: 0.1640581423

Update March 2014 - this is now described in my paper Fourier Integration and Stochastic Volatility Calibration.

### Second Cumulant of Heston

I recently stumbled upon an error in the various papers related to the Heston Cos method regarding the second cumulant. It is used to define the boundaries of the Cos method.

Letting phi be Heston characteristic function, the cumulant generating function is:
$$g(u) = \log(\phi(-iu))$$

And the second cumulant is defined a:
$$c_2 = g''(0)$$

Compared to a numerical implementation, the c_2 from the paper is really off in many use cases.

This is where Maxima comes useful, even if I had to simplify the results by hand. It leads to the following analytical formula:
$$c_2 = \frac{v_0}{4\kappa^3}\{ 4 \kappa^2 \left(1+(\rho\sigma t -1)e^{-\kappa t}\right) + \kappa \left(4\rho\sigma(e^{-\kappa t}-1)-2\sigma^2 t e^{-\kappa t}\right)+\sigma^2(1-e^{-2\kappa t}) \}\\ + \frac{\theta}{8\kappa^3} \{ 8 \kappa^3 t - 8 \kappa^2 \left(1+ \rho\sigma t + (\rho\sigma t-1)e^{-\kappa t}\right) + 2\kappa \left( (1+2e^{-\kappa t})\sigma^2 t+8(1-e^{-\kappa t})\rho\sigma \right) \\ + \sigma^2(e^{-2\kappa t} + 4e^{-\kappa t}-5) \}$$

In contrast, the paper formula was:

I saw this while trying to calibrate Heston on a bumped surface: the results were very different with the Cos method than with the other methods. The short maturities were mispriced, except if one pushed the truncation level L to 24 (instead of the usual 12), and as a result one would also need to significantly raise the number of points used in the Cos method. With the corrected formula, it works well with L=12.

Here is an example of failure on a call option of strike, spot 1.0 and maturity 1.0 and not-so-realistic Heston parameters $$\kappa=0.1, \theta=1.12, \sigma=1.0, v_0=0.2, \rho=-0.377836$$ using 200 points:

New formula: 0.1640581405
Paper formula: 0.1743425406
N=30 with 10000 points: 0.1640581423

Update March 2014 - this is now described in my paper Fourier Integration and Stochastic Volatility Calibration.

## Wednesday, October 02, 2013

### Maxima for Symbolic Calculus

A few years ago, I found an interesting open source symbolic calculus software called Xcas. It can however be quickly limited, for example, it does not seem to work well to compute Taylor expansions with several embedded functions.
Google pointed me to another popular open source package, Maxima. It looks a bit rudimentary (command like interface), but formulas can actually be very easily exported to latex with the tex command. Here is a simple example:

(%i14) D(x):=sqrt((lambda-rho*eta*x)^2+(-x^2+x)*eta^2);
2       2         2
(%o14)       D(x) := sqrt((lambda - rho eta x)  + (- x  + x) eta )

(%i15) G(x) := (lambda - rho*eta*x - D(x))/(lambda - rho*eta*x +D(x));
lambda - rho eta x - D(x)
(%o15)                 G(x) := -------------------------
lambda - rho eta x + D(x)

(%i16) tex(taylor((1-exp(-t*D(x)))/(1-G(x)*exp(-t*D(x)))*(lambda - rho*eta*x - D(x)),x,0,3));
$$-{{\left(e^{t\,\lambda}-1\right)\,\eta^2\,x}\over{2\,e^{t\,\lambda} \,\lambda}}+{{\left(\left(4\,e^{t\,\lambda}\,t\,\eta^3\,\rho+\left(4 \,\left(e^{t\,\lambda}\right)^2-4\,e^{t\,\lambda}\right)\,\eta^2 \right)\,\lambda^2+\left(\left(-4\,\left(e^{t\,\lambda}\right)^2+4\, e^{t\,\lambda}\right)\,\eta^3\,\rho-2\,e^{t\,\lambda}\,t\,\eta^4 \right)\,\lambda+\left(\left(e^{t\,\lambda}\right)^2-1\right)\,\eta^ 4\right)\,x^2}\over{8\,\left(e^{t\,\lambda}\right)^2\,\lambda^3}}+{{ \left(\left(8\,\left(e^{t\,\lambda}\right)^2\,t^2\,\eta^4\,\rho^2-16 \,\left(e^{t\,\lambda}\right)^2\,t\,\eta^3\,\rho\right)\,\lambda^4+ \left(16\,\left(e^{t\,\lambda}\right)^2\,t\,\eta^4\,\rho^2+\left(-8 \,\left(e^{t\,\lambda}\right)^2\,t^2\,\eta^5+\left(16\,\left(e^{t\, \lambda}\right)^3-16\,\left(e^{t\,\lambda}\right)^2\right)\,\eta^3 \right)\,\rho+16\,\left(e^{t\,\lambda}\right)^2\,t\,\eta^4\right)\, \lambda^3+\left(\left(-16\,\left(e^{t\,\lambda}\right)^3+16\,\left(e ^{t\,\lambda}\right)^2\right)\,\eta^4\,\rho^2+\left(-16\,\left(e^{t \,\lambda}\right)^2-8\,e^{t\,\lambda}\right)\,t\,\eta^5\,\rho+2\, \left(e^{t\,\lambda}\right)^2\,t^2\,\eta^6+\left(-8\,\left(e^{t\, \lambda}\right)^3+8\,e^{t\,\lambda}\right)\,\eta^4\right)\,\lambda^2 +\left(\left(12\,\left(e^{t\,\lambda}\right)^3-12\,e^{t\,\lambda} \right)\,\eta^5\,\rho+\left(2\,\left(e^{t\,\lambda}\right)^2+4\,e^{t \,\lambda}\right)\,t\,\eta^6\right)\,\lambda+\left(-2\,\left(e^{t\, \lambda}\right)^3-\left(e^{t\,\lambda}\right)^2+2\,e^{t\,\lambda}+1 \right)\,\eta^6\right)\,x^3}\over{32\,\left(e^{t\,\lambda}\right)^3 \,\lambda^5}}+\cdots$$

Regarding Taylor expansion, there seems to be quite a few options possible, but I found that the default expansion was already relatively easy to read. XCas produced less readable expansions, or just failed.

### Maxima for Symbolic Calculus

A few years ago, I found an interesting open source symbolic calculus software called Xcas. It can however be quickly limited, for example, it does not seem to work well to compute Taylor expansions with several embedded functions.
Google pointed me to another popular open source package, Maxima. It looks a bit rudimentary (command like interface), but formulas can actually be very easily exported to latex with the tex command. Here is a simple example:

(%i14) D(x):=sqrt((lambda-rho*eta*x)^2+(-x^2+x)*eta^2);
2       2         2
(%o14)       D(x) := sqrt((lambda - rho eta x)  + (- x  + x) eta )

(%i15) G(x) := (lambda - rho*eta*x - D(x))/(lambda - rho*eta*x +D(x));
lambda - rho eta x - D(x)
(%o15)                 G(x) := -------------------------
lambda - rho eta x + D(x)

(%i16) tex(taylor((1-exp(-t*D(x)))/(1-G(x)*exp(-t*D(x)))*(lambda - rho*eta*x - D(x)),x,0,3));
$$-{{\left(e^{t\,\lambda}-1\right)\,\eta^2\,x}\over{2\,e^{t\,\lambda} \,\lambda}}+{{\left(\left(4\,e^{t\,\lambda}\,t\,\eta^3\,\rho+\left(4 \,\left(e^{t\,\lambda}\right)^2-4\,e^{t\,\lambda}\right)\,\eta^2 \right)\,\lambda^2+\left(\left(-4\,\left(e^{t\,\lambda}\right)^2+4\, e^{t\,\lambda}\right)\,\eta^3\,\rho-2\,e^{t\,\lambda}\,t\,\eta^4 \right)\,\lambda+\left(\left(e^{t\,\lambda}\right)^2-1\right)\,\eta^ 4\right)\,x^2}\over{8\,\left(e^{t\,\lambda}\right)^2\,\lambda^3}}+{{ \left(\left(8\,\left(e^{t\,\lambda}\right)^2\,t^2\,\eta^4\,\rho^2-16 \,\left(e^{t\,\lambda}\right)^2\,t\,\eta^3\,\rho\right)\,\lambda^4+ \left(16\,\left(e^{t\,\lambda}\right)^2\,t\,\eta^4\,\rho^2+\left(-8 \,\left(e^{t\,\lambda}\right)^2\,t^2\,\eta^5+\left(16\,\left(e^{t\, \lambda}\right)^3-16\,\left(e^{t\,\lambda}\right)^2\right)\,\eta^3 \right)\,\rho+16\,\left(e^{t\,\lambda}\right)^2\,t\,\eta^4\right)\, \lambda^3+\left(\left(-16\,\left(e^{t\,\lambda}\right)^3+16\,\left(e ^{t\,\lambda}\right)^2\right)\,\eta^4\,\rho^2+\left(-16\,\left(e^{t \,\lambda}\right)^2-8\,e^{t\,\lambda}\right)\,t\,\eta^5\,\rho+2\, \left(e^{t\,\lambda}\right)^2\,t^2\,\eta^6+\left(-8\,\left(e^{t\, \lambda}\right)^3+8\,e^{t\,\lambda}\right)\,\eta^4\right)\,\lambda^2 +\left(\left(12\,\left(e^{t\,\lambda}\right)^3-12\,e^{t\,\lambda} \right)\,\eta^5\,\rho+\left(2\,\left(e^{t\,\lambda}\right)^2+4\,e^{t \,\lambda}\right)\,t\,\eta^6\right)\,\lambda+\left(-2\,\left(e^{t\, \lambda}\right)^3-\left(e^{t\,\lambda}\right)^2+2\,e^{t\,\lambda}+1 \right)\,\eta^6\right)\,x^3}\over{32\,\left(e^{t\,\lambda}\right)^3 \,\lambda^5}}+\cdots$$

Regarding Taylor expansion, there seems to be quite a few options possible, but I found that the default expansion was already relatively easy to read. XCas produced less readable expansions, or just failed.

## Tuesday, September 17, 2013

### Martin Odersky teaches Scala to the Masses

I tried today the Scala courses on coursera by the Scala creator, Martin Odersky. I was quite impressed by the quality: I somehow believed Scala to be only a better Java, now I think otherwise. Throughout the course, even though it all sounds very basic, you understand the key concepts of Scala and why functional programming + OO concepts are a natural idea. What's nice about Scala is that it avoids the functional vs OO or even the functional vs procedural debate by allowing both, because both can be important, at different scales. Small details can be (and probably should be) procedural for efficiency, because a processor is a processor, but higher level should probably be more functional (immutable) to be clearer, easier to evolve and more easily parallelized.

I recently saw a very good example at work recently of how mutability could be very problematic, with no gain in this case because it was high level (and likely just the result of being too used to OO concepts).

I believe it will make my code more functional programming oriented in the future, especially at the high level.

### Martin Odersky teaches Scala to the Masses

I tried today the Scala courses on coursera by the Scala creator, Martin Odersky. I was quite impressed by the quality: I somehow believed Scala to be only a better Java, now I think otherwise. Throughout the course, even though it all sounds very basic, you understand the key concepts of Scala and why functional programming + OO concepts are a natural idea. What's nice about Scala is that it avoids the functional vs OO or even the functional vs procedural debate by allowing both, because both can be important, at different scales. Small details can be (and probably should be) procedural for efficiency, because a processor is a processor, but higher level should probably be more functional (immutable) to be clearer, easier to evolve and more easily parallelized.

I recently saw a very good example at work recently of how mutability could be very problematic, with no gain in this case because it was high level (and likely just the result of being too used to OO concepts).

I believe it will make my code more functional programming oriented in the future, especially at the high level.

## Thursday, September 12, 2013

### Setting Values in Java Enum - A Bad Idea

My Scala habits have made me create a stupid bug related to Java enums. In Scala, the concept of case classes is very neat and recently, I just confused enum in Java with what I sometimes do in Scala case classes.

I wrote an enum with a setter like:

public static enum BlackVariateType {
V0,
ZERO_DERIVATIVE;

private double volSquare;
public double getBlackVolatilitySquare() {
return volSquare;
}

public void setBlackVolatilitySquare(double volSquare) {
this.volSquare = volSquare;
}

}

Here, calling setBlackVolatilitySquare will override any previous value, and thus, if several parts are calling it with different values, it will be a mess as there is only a single instance.

I am not sure if there is actually one good use case to have a setter on an enum. This sounds like a very dangerous practice in general. Member variables allowed should be only final.

### Setting Values in Java Enum - A Bad Idea

My Scala habits have made me create a stupid bug related to Java enums. In Scala, the concept of case classes is very neat and recently, I just confused enum in Java with what I sometimes do in Scala case classes.

I wrote an enum with a setter like:

public static enum BlackVariateType {
V0,
ZERO_DERIVATIVE;

private double volSquare;
public double getBlackVolatilitySquare() {
return volSquare;
}

public void setBlackVolatilitySquare(double volSquare) {
this.volSquare = volSquare;
}

}

Here, calling setBlackVolatilitySquare will override any previous value, and thus, if several parts are calling it with different values, it will be a mess as there is only a single instance.

I am not sure if there is actually one good use case to have a setter on an enum. This sounds like a very dangerous practice in general. Member variables allowed should be only final.

## Thursday, September 05, 2013

### Making Classic Heston Integration Faster than the Cos Method

A coworker pointed to me that Andersen and Piterbarg book "Interest Rate Modeling" had a chapter on Fourier integration applied to Heston. The authors rely on the Lewis formula to price vanilla call options under Heston. Lewis formula
More importantly, they strongly advise the use of a Black-Scholes control variate. I had read about that idea before, and actually tried it in the Cos method, but it did not improve anything for the Cos method. So I was a bit sceptical. I decided to add the control variate to my Attari code. The results were very encouraging. So I pursued on implementing the Lewis formula and their basic integration scheme (no change of variable). Attari formula Carr-Madan formula (used by Lord-Kahl) Heston formula Cos formula
My impression is that the Lewis formula is not so different from the Attari formula in practice: both have a quadratic denominator, and are of similar complexity. The Lewis formula makes the Black-Scholes control variate real (the imaginary part of the characteristic function is null). The Cos formula looks quite different, but it actually is not that much different as the Vk are quadratic in the denominator as well. I still have this idea of showing how close it is to Attari in spirit.

My initial implementation of Attari relied on the log transform described by Kahl-Jaeckel to move from an infinite integration domain to a finite domain. As a result adaptive quadratures (for example based on Simpson) provide better performance/accuracy ratio than a very basic trapezoidal rule as used by Andersen and Piterbarg. If I remove the log transform and truncate the integration according by Andersen and Piterbarg criteria, pricing is faster by a factor of x2 to x3.

This is one of the slightly surprising aspect of Andersen-Piterbarg method: using a very basic integration like the Trapezoidal rule is enough. A more sophisticated integration, be it a Simpson 3/8 rule or some fancy adaptive Newton-Cotes rule does not lead to any better accuracy. The Simpson 3/8 rule won't increase accuracy at all (although it does not cost more to compute) while the adaptive quadratures will often lead to a higher number of function evaluations or a lower overall accuracy.

Here is the accuracy on put options with a maturity of 2 years:
I had to push to 512 points for the Cos method and L=24 (truncation) in order to have a similar accuracy as Attari and Andersen-Piterbarg with 200 points and a control variate. For 1000 options here are the computation times (the difference is smaller for 10 options, around 30%):

Attari 0.023s
Andersen-Piterbarg 0.024s
Cos 0.05s

Here is the accuracy on put options with a maturity of 2 days:

All methods used 200 points. The error is nearly the same for all. And the Cos method takes now only 0.02s. The results are similar with a maturity of 2 weeks.

Conclusion
The Cos method performs less well on longer maturities. Attari or Lewis formula with control variate and caching of the characteristic function are particularly attractive, especially with the simple Andersen-Piterbarg integration.

### Making Classic Heston Integration Faster than the Cos Method

A coworker pointed to me that Andersen and Piterbarg book "Interest Rate Modeling" had a chapter on Fourier integration applied to Heston. The authors rely on the Lewis formula to price vanilla call options under Heston. Lewis formula
More importantly, they strongly advise the use of a Black-Scholes control variate. I had read about that idea before, and actually tried it in the Cos method, but it did not improve anything for the Cos method. So I was a bit sceptical. I decided to add the control variate to my Attari code. The results were very encouraging. So I pursued on implementing the Lewis formula and their basic integration scheme (no change of variable). Attari formula Carr-Madan formula (used by Lord-Kahl) Heston formula Cos formula
My impression is that the Lewis formula is not so different from the Attari formula in practice: both have a quadratic denominator, and are of similar complexity. The Lewis formula makes the Black-Scholes control variate real (the imaginary part of the characteristic function is null). The Cos formula looks quite different, but it actually is not that much different as the Vk are quadratic in the denominator as well. I still have this idea of showing how close it is to Attari in spirit.

My initial implementation of Attari relied on the log transform described by Kahl-Jaeckel to move from an infinite integration domain to a finite domain. As a result adaptive quadratures (for example based on Simpson) provide better performance/accuracy ratio than a very basic trapezoidal rule as used by Andersen and Piterbarg. If I remove the log transform and truncate the integration according by Andersen and Piterbarg criteria, pricing is faster by a factor of x2 to x3.

This is one of the slightly surprising aspect of Andersen-Piterbarg method: using a very basic integration like the Trapezoidal rule is enough. A more sophisticated integration, be it a Simpson 3/8 rule or some fancy adaptive Newton-Cotes rule does not lead to any better accuracy. The Simpson 3/8 rule won't increase accuracy at all (although it does not cost more to compute) while the adaptive quadratures will often lead to a higher number of function evaluations or a lower overall accuracy.

Here is the accuracy on put options with a maturity of 2 years:
I had to push to 512 points for the Cos method and L=24 (truncation) in order to have a similar accuracy as Attari and Andersen-Piterbarg with 200 points and a control variate. For 1000 options here are the computation times (the difference is smaller for 10 options, around 30%):

Attari 0.023s
Andersen-Piterbarg 0.024s
Cos 0.05s

Here is the accuracy on put options with a maturity of 2 days:

All methods used 200 points. The error is nearly the same for all. And the Cos method takes now only 0.02s. The results are similar with a maturity of 2 weeks.

Conclusion
The Cos method performs less well on longer maturities. Attari or Lewis formula with control variate and caching of the characteristic function are particularly attractive, especially with the simple Andersen-Piterbarg integration.

## Saturday, August 31, 2013

### Better Fonts in Fedora than in Ubuntu

By default, text in Fedora 19 looks ok but not great. There are good tips to improve fonts on http://fedorasolved.org/Members/khaytsus/improve-fonts
As root user here is what need to be done:

cd /etc/fonts/conf.d
ln -s /usr/share/fontconfig/conf.avail/10-autohint.conf
ln -s /usr/share/fontconfig/conf.avail/11-lcdfilter-default.conf
yum install freetype-freeworld

Reboot, then, in gnome-tweak-tool choose hinting = slight, and antialiasing = rgba. I also choose the liberation sans and liberation mono fonts.

I am not sure which one did the trick, but it looks much better (even better than my laptop under Ubuntu, not sure why). ### Better Fonts in Fedora than in Ubuntu

By default, text in Fedora 19 looks ok but not great. There are good tips to improve fonts on http://fedorasolved.org/Members/khaytsus/improve-fonts
As root user here is what need to be done:

cd /etc/fonts/conf.d
ln -s /usr/share/fontconfig/conf.avail/10-autohint.conf
ln -s /usr/share/fontconfig/conf.avail/11-lcdfilter-default.conf
yum install freetype-freeworld

Reboot, then, in gnome-tweak-tool choose hinting = slight, and antialiasing = rgba. I also choose the liberation sans and liberation mono fonts.

I am not sure which one did the trick, but it looks much better (even better than my laptop under Ubuntu, not sure why). 